Famous Caves Home Types of  Caves Inside of Caves Uses of Caves Activities References
crystal - matter that is arranged in an orderly and recognizable pattern of atoms, molecules or ions
hollow - empty or not solid.
supersaturation - to cause a solution to be more concentrated than is usually possible
minerals-naturally occurring, inorganic solids with a defined chemical formula
sedimentary rock: rock formed by the build up of sediments deposited by water on river, lake, or ocean floors which build up layers over time and with pressure from the weight causes sediment to turn into rock.
iron oxide: chemical compounds composed of iron and oxygen
carbon: a chemical element. It contains six protons, six neutrons, and it also has six electrons in orbit
lithosphere: the solid portion of the earth-the crust.

mineral diamond thingy
                       Cave Minerals

 Close your eyes and imagine you are surrounded by the stuff of legends-a dragon's lair? Minerals are the gems of the earth. Hidden in the dark recesses of tunnels waiting to be discovered are the deposits of millions of years, the earth's treasure chest. Found in their pure form these are unique natural formations that hold visible connections to the history of our Earth. They help tell the mysteries of the Earth's past.

 Cave minerals are located in hollow passages, under the earth's surface. Cave minerals are natural substances that can sometimes look like a crystal. But, they  can also appear as sand, salt, stone, an icicle, or even dark, solid uninteresting stone slick with the accumulation of slowly dripping water. Cave minerals can be formed when dehydration occurs, or when something soaks up its water and moisture. Or, if they can be formed by supersaturation. Cave minerals are an important part of a cave. They are what makes a cave look special and unique!

There are many types of  minerals that are found in caves.  Both the caves and the minerals that are found in them are formed by different forces such as water and weathering. These changes effect the shape, size, and historic information about each and every mineral.
Limestone is a piece of sedimentary rock. It is originally white but by the help of iron oxide and carbon  , limestone can either be brown, yellow, red, blue , black, or even gray. The texture of the limestone can vary from coarse to fine. It all depends on the different reactions it receives. Many pieces of limestone are formed from the skeletons and shells of marine creatures millions of years ago. You may have heard of a variation of limestone called marble. This is when limestone is changed through the forces of the earth and "recrystallizes." Limestone varies in hardness and density so that some can be really soft while others are much denser and be polished. In caves limestone has been "nibbled" away at by acid in rainwater which gradually eats away enlarging fissures. Some cave are primarily limestone. This is one form of caves that may take a few thousand years rather than others which reveal millions of years of weathering.

Calcite crystals are formed under water when caves get filled with solutions .Crystals similar to calcite were grown in laboratories .There are over 300 different types of calcite known today. These crystals are known to be as big as doorknobs. The crystals that are sharper are known as dogtooth spar. The  rounded crystals are known as nailhead spars. Calcite has gotten its name from the word  chalix, which is the Greek word for lime.  Calcite is the most common mineral on the face of the earth. It also comprises about 4% of the earth's weight of  the earths' lithosphere. Calcite can form rocks  of  considerable mass. Calcite is formed by many different earthly surroundings. It consists of very large parts of the three rock classifications.

Glauberite is a  hard, translucent mineral. It is made of soda and lime, which helps it to heal and treat stomachaches .It is also used to help and smoothen the digestive system. Glauberite is just like limestone in a peculiar way , it gets dissolved in water and the texture is almost the same.
Arcanite was first identified in 1845.The Latin name for Arcanite is Double Secret  because this mineral is only found in hidden places. The most common caves that Arcanite is found in are the Saudi caves.

Palygorskite is a type of  clay that's rave and looks very funny. It is a dark polo red, and feels spongy and slimy. It is sometimes called mountain leather  because it feels like wet leather. Palygorskite resembles dirty rags and chewed up cardboard. 

Gypsum can  come in many different colors such as gray , red , brown or yellow. Sometimes it could also be colorless. This mineral can grow so big that they could be larger than humans! These  minerals are much warmer than ordinary rocks and are very delicate. Because of there delicacy they  can  easily  be scratched by just a simple scratch by your fingernail.  Gypsum can even be fluorescent.

 You walk out of the cave. You remember every translucent and opaque mineral you saw. Getting prepared to tell the scientists and the world, what you have found and learned you turn around, to take your last glance at the minerals inside the cave.  You see hundreds of glittery flakes shining at you! Blinking constantly hoping you got their life changing messages telling you of all their historical information and physical features.





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cave carbonate